A shares

A class of shares that have specific rights attached to them, which will be set out in a company's articles of association. Typically A shares have voting and pre-emption rights compared to other classes of shares, such as B shares.

Alternative Finance

The term used to describe financial funding models that differ from more traditional methods of finance. Crowdfunding and peer-to-peer lending are examples of alternative finance.

Angel Investors

Investors who provide investment and other support to early-stage businesses. Traditionally angels investors are wealthy individuals who have a significant amount of entrepreneurial, industry specific or investment experience.

Angel Network / Syndicate

A group of Angel Investors that pool together money and other resources to invest in, and provide support to, early-stage businesses.

Articles of Association

One of the constitutional documents of a company that sets out its management and administrative structure. The articles dictate the internal affairs of the company such as director and shareholder rights, the issue and transfer of shares, and the organisation of meetings.

Asset Class

A class of financial instruments that have similar characteristics, behave similarly in the marketplace and are subject to the same laws and regulation. Equities (stocks and shares), fixed-income (bonds) and real estate (property) are all examples of asset classes.